Studies of connections between teacher behaviour and student outcomes are numerous, but those specifically addressing such connections in a competence-based vocational education setting are limited. For a sample of Indonesian students, this study examined the connection between two dimensions of teacher interpersonal behaviour (proximity and influence) and student competency levels, as well as whether or not these relations are mediated by students' intrinsic motivation. Additionally, it examined if these relations differed in learning environments with high versus low characteristics of competence-based education (HCBE vs. LCBE). Three questionnaires responded to by 506 first-year students were analysed using multigroups structural equation modelling. Teacher cooperative behaviour affected student motivation positively, and the influence was stronger in LCBE learning environments. Teacher controlling behaviour reduced student-perceived competency levels, with the reduction stronger in HCBE learning environments. Implications of the findings for teaching and learning in vocational education are discussed.